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Темата за ограничаване на окислението на мастните киселини и подтикване на процеса на окисление на глюкозата е доста важна за метаболитната теория за здравето. Д-р Рей Пийт е писал многократно по нея, споменавайки многобройни химични вещества, които могат да подобрят глюкозното окисление, а също и да редуцират прекомерното окисление на мастните киселини. Ниацинамид, аспирин, както и витамин Е са може би най-често споменаваните субстанции в това отношение. Въпреки това, всички тези вещества не инхибират окислението на мастните киселини директно. Те просто ограничават прекомерната липолиза. Съществуват субстанции, които директно инхибират тези процес и . Може би най-известния от тях е Милдронатът (Meldodium). Други такива са: триметазидин, етомоксир, ранолазин и др. За съжаление, с изключение на Милдроната, всички останали клинично използвани инхибитори на окислението на мастните киселини имат тежки странични ефекти, които ограничават тяхната употреба.

Не съществуват много подобни на Милдроната химични субстанции без токсични странични ефекти, а новооткритите не могат да бъдат използвани като продукт за нанасяне върху кожата, тъй като я дразнят. Въпреки това, съществуват две естествени съставки, които изглежда имат много обещаващи резултати като про-метаболитни субстанции.

Първото вещество е пируват, а второто – ацето-ацетат. Технически и двете представляват кетони. Пируватът е кето-киселина на аминокиселината аланин, а ацето-ацетатът е кетоновата версия на мастната киселина бутират. И двете съставки се употребяват като био маркери на редокс статуса под формата на тестове за съотношението пируват/лактат и ацето-ацетат/3β-хидроксибутират. И двете вещества са не само индикатори на редокс статуса, но също и негови модулатори – т. е. прилагането на което и да е от двете вещества променя редокс баланса в полза на окислението. Като резултат от това, съотношенията на NAD/NADH и GSSG/GSH също се повишават. Съотношението на първите две вещества няма нужда от представяне, но това на вторите две е от изключително значение при раковите заболявания. Раковите клетки акумулират огромни количества GSH (глутатион), който бива използван за защитата им от генерираните при химиотерапия реактивни кислородни форми. Всъщност, повишените нива на GSH се считат за първичен фактор при „химиотерапевтичната резистентност“. Големите фармацевтични компании влагат огромни средства в търсене на химични субстанции, които да понижат нивата на GSH.

Прилагането на висока доза ацето-ацетат само за един ден, понижава нивата на GSH до нула! По-умерена доза (която е налична в нашия продукт Pyrucet ) също понижава нивата му до нула след приемане от порядъка на 3-4 дена. Пируватът има същия ефект. Може би

 най-интригуващият ефект и на пирувата и на ацетил-ацетата е възможността им да инхибират окислението на мастните киселини. И двете субстанции показват инхибиране поне 50% в концентрации, лесно постижими с единична доза Pyrucet.

Точният механизъм на действие за потискане на окислението на мастните киселини за двете химични вещества не е известен. В старо проучване се разкрива, че пируватът действа подобно на познатия етомоксир. В други изследвания се посочва, че пируватът и ацетил-ацетатът стимулират активността на ензима пируват-дехидрогеназа ( PDH), който е ограничаващото стъпало в процеса на окисление на глюкозата. Понижената активност на PDH е демонстрирана реално във всички хронични заболявания, особено диабет, рак, деменция, заболявания на черния дроб и бъбреците, сърдечно-съдови заболявания и др.

Веществото Дихлороацетат (DCA) не е много по-различно по структура от ацето-ацетата. Неговият първичен механизъм на действие е потискането на PDK (пируват-дехидрогеназа киназа), а оттам ре-активацията на PDH (пируват-дехидрогеназата). Големите фармацевтични компании много добре са запознати с ползите от активирането на PDH и са тествали няколко препарата върху животни с цел наблюдение дали активирането му може да лекува „не-метаболитни“ състояния като деменции, мускулни дистрофии, дори и амиотфорична латерална склероза. Все още няма изпитвания на активизиран PDH за лечение на ракови заболявания (като изключим неофициалните изследвания с дихлороацетат), но всички доказателства сочат в полза на PDH като огромен фактор при лечението им.

Проблемът при пирувата е, че е нестабилен в разтвор и също така, че трябва да бъде приложен в буквално високи дози, за да бъде наблюдаван полезен ефект. При изследванията върху хора обикновено се използват дози от 15g-50g пируват на ден. Ацето-ацетатът също е нестабилен, но при него поне и малки дози притежават силен ефект на окисление на про-глюкозата. Изследователското общество познава потенциала на пирувата още от 70те години и се опитва да намери алтернатива на чистия пируват, който да бъде стабилен и да дава полезни ефекти при по-малки дози. И са го отклили! Оказва се, че естер, познат като етил-пируват е доста стабилен при широк диапазон на температури и когато е миксиран с други химични вещества. Също така, естерът е по-липофилен от чистия пируват. Това е вероятното обяснение защо той е способен да упражнява същите полезни ефекти в дози 100 пъти по-малки  от тези на чистия пируват.

В допълнение, множество изследвания, сръвняващи етил-пирувата и неговата чиста форма показват значителен добър ефект в полза на естера и нулев на чистия пируват. В няколко изследвания (изброени в референциите) правят опити да открият причината за отличителните ефекти между етил-пируват и чист пируват. В резултат се оказва, че ефектите на етил-пирувата са уникални и не се споделят нито от етанола, нито от пируват, приложени по отделно като отделни химични вещества.

Подобно на това, етил ацето-ацетатът също е стабилен и има подобни ефекти, за разлика от не-естерифицираната версия.

Някои от най-значимите полезни ефекти на етил-пирувата са: силно противовъзпалително средство в широк спектър, предотвратява спад на АТФ и енергийна дисфункция при множество тежки хронични състояния, антибактериален/анти-вирусен/ противогъбичен, невропротективен, хепатопротективен, нефропротективен, кардиопротективен, противораков, антисептичен, ендотоксин – блокер, имунопротективен, гонадопротективен агент и др.

Списъкът с благотворни ефекти е много дълъг, а количеството изследвания е смайващо. Едновременно е изненадващо и не толкова, че не сме чули нищо от медиите за този многообещаващ ендогенен метаболит. Като се имат предвид безбройните изследвания, в които се показват благотворните му ефекти върху широк спектър от състояния, може да се предположи, че причината да не се употребява клинично е генеричната му природа и непатенованост.

Стабилните липофилни естери на двата ендогенни метаболита очевидно притежават дълга поредица от ползотворни ефекти, а в същото време нямат реално никакви странични ефекти (поне в дозите, употребявани в описаните по-долу изследвания). Всъщност,  етил-пируватът и етил ацето-ацетатът се определят от FDA (агенцията по храните и лекарствата на САЩ) като „общопризнати като безопасни“. Веществата се употребяват широко като овкусители в хранителната промишленост. Количествата, необходими за постигане на полезните им ефекти обаче, са далеч в по-големи дози, отколкото тези, които си набавяме от храната.


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Pyrucet е комбинация от етилови естери на ендогенните метаболити/кетони пируват и ацето-ацетат. Многобройни изследвания показват, че тези етилови естери са по-стабилни и по-липофилни от техните не-естерифицирани версии. Доказани са техните ползотворни ефекти с много широк обхват при проблеми с : глюкозния метаболизъм, окислението на мастните киселини, синтез на АТФ, редокс статуса, възпалителните процеси, автоимунитета, бъбреците, сърцето, черния дроб, мозъка, далака, тимуса, жлъчката, ставите и др.




https://raypeatforum.com/community/threads/pyrucet-liquid-ethyl-pyruvate-aceatoacetate-mix.27487/


References:

1. Miscellaneous
Mutagenic investigation of flavourings: dimethyl succinate, ethyl pyruvate and aconitic acid are negative in the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome test. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
A 28-day feeding study with ethyl acetoacetate in rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Ethyl pyruvate improves skin flap survival after ischaemia reperfusion injury. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Roles of nitric oxide and ethyl pyruvate after peripheral nerve injury. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
“… Due to poor solubility and stability, therapeutic potential of pyruvate is limited. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is now considered as a suitable replacement of pyruvate. In this paper, we will try to focus the effect of NO and EP in Schwann cell dedifferentiation, proliferation, nerve degeneration, and regeneration during Wallerian degeneration (WD) of peripheral nerve injury along with their neuroprotective effects, cardiovascular functioning, support in hepatic complication, etc.”
Inhibitory effects of ethyl pyruvate on platelet aggregation and phosphatidylserine exposure. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
“…Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a stable lipophilic pyruvate derivative. Studies demonstrated that EP shows potent anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant effects. Inflammation and coagulation are closely interacted with platelet activation.”
Acetoacetic acid – Wikipedia
“…Acetoacetic acid (also diacetic acid) is the organic compound with the formula CH3COCH2COOH. It is the simplest beta-keto acid group, and like other members of this class, it is unstable. The methyl and ethyl esters, which are quite stable, are produced on a large scale industrially as precursors to dyes.”
Ethyl pyruvate is a novel anti-inflammatory agent to treat multiple inflammatory organ injuries. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)


Ethyl pyruvate for the treatment of acetaminophen intoxication: alternative to N-acetylcysteine? – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
“…Pyruvate, however, is unstable in aqueous solutions due to a rapid aldol-like condensation reaction forming parapyruvate, a potent inhibitor of the Krebs cycle blocking the α-ketoglutaric dehydrogenase [7]. This problem can be circumvented by using the ethanol ester of pyruvate (that is, EP) – the effects of which qualitatively resemble that of pyruvate, but which only require molar doses that are lower by one to two orders of magnitude [7]. In addition to the properties of pyruvate, EP also exerts anti-apoptotic effects, increases heme oxygenase-1 expression, attenuates peroxynitrite-related DNA damage, and stabilizes the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α via stimulation of the Krebs cycle.”
“…Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a simple derivative of pyruvic acid, which is an important endogenous metabolite that can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment with EP is able to ameliorate systemic inflammation and multiple organ dysfunctions in multiple animal models, such as acute pancreatitis, alcoholic liver injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), acute viral myocarditis, acute kidney injury and sepsis. Recent studies have demonstrated that prolonged treatment with EP can ameliorate experimental ulcerative colitis and slow multiple tumor growth. It has become evident that EP has pharmacological anti-inflammatory effect to inhibit multiple early inflammatory cytokines and the late inflammatory cytokine HMGB1 release, and the anti-tumor activity is likely associated with its anti-inflammatory effect. EP has been tested in human volunteers and in a clinical trial of patients undergoing cardiac surgery in USA and shown to be safe at clinical relevant doses…”
Higher hypochlorous acid scavenging activity of ethyl pyruvate compared to its sodium salt. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
“…The potential effect of ethanol was also evaluated, and hypochlorous acid was used as an oxidant. Our data indicate the concentration-dependent scavenging potency of both sodium and ethyl pyruvate, with the ester having higher activity. This effect was not related to the presence of ethanol. Better protection of the liver homogenate by ethyl pyruvate was also apparent, despite the fact that cell membrane transport was omitted.”
Ethyl pyruvate. – PubMed – NCBI
“…This ester was originally regarded as a way to administer pyruvate, while avoiding some of the problems associated with the instability of pyruvate in aqueous solutions. Increasingly, however, it is becoming apparent that certain pyruvate esters, including ethyl pyruvate, have pharmacological effects, such as suppression of inflammation, which are distinct from those exerted by pyruvate anion. Ethyl pyruvate has been tested in human volunteers and shown to be safe at clinically relevant doses. Ethyl pyruvate is a simple molecule that has been shown to have salutary effects in numerous large and small animal models of critical illness. It remains to be determined whether this ester can be used successfully to treat human diseases.”


2. Metabolism
Inhibition of free fatty acid oxidation by acetoacetate in normal dogs. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
“…The rate of turnover and oxidation of plasma free fatty acids (FFA) waa measured in 7 normal anaesthetized dogs infused at a constant rate with 1-W-palmitate for 5 h. After a control period, sustained hyperketonaemia was induced by infusing sodium aceto-acetate (AA). This produced a fall in plasma FFA (33%) and in blood sugar (24%), without changes in immuno-reactive insulin (IRI) concentrations. During the control period, the turnover rate of carbon of FFA averaged 131 uat.C/kg/min, 32% of which were oxidized, thus supplying 17.7% of the total CO, production. At the end of the AA infusion, the mean turnover rate of FFA was reduced to 75 uat. C/kg/min; since only 13.9% of these were oxidized, the contribution of FFA to total CO, production was reduced to 4.3% .”
Effect of pyruvate and acetoacetate on the metabolism of fatty acids by the perfused rat heart. – PubMed – NCBI (EA + P)
“…About 75% of the fatty acids removed were oxidized to carbon dioxide accounting, at this concentration of fatty acids in the perfusate, for 37% of oxygen consumption of the heart…In the presence of 10mM pyruvate or acetoacetate, the uptake of fatty acids from the medium was reduced approximately 50% and the oxidation of the extracted acids was reduced further so that only 25% of the fatty acids oxidized by the control group appeared as carbon dioxide in the presence of competing substrate…The competing substrates, thus, contributed 75%-85% to the fuel of the respiration and reduced the contribution of the fatty acids to 8%-9% of the total respiration of the heart…It may be of considerable interest to examine the competition between pyruvate and free fatty acid over a range of concentrations bracketing physiological concentrations of both substances…Both acetoacetate and pyruvate can enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle without resort to a kinase, and this may be one reason why they compete successfully with fatty acids which require the action of adenosine triphosphate and a thiokinase.”
EFFECT OF CARNITINE ON THE OXIDATION OF ALPHA-OXOGLUTARATE TO SUCCINATE IN THE PRESENCE OF ACETOACETATE OR PYRUVATE. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Inhibition of palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by pyruvate in rat heart mitochondria. – PubMed – NCBI (P)
“…The oxidation of 1 -‘4C-palmitoylcarnitine by rat heart mitochondria has bean measured by assessing both the disappearance of substrata and the appearance of labelled products. Pyruvate inhibited palmitoylcarnitine oxidation by about 40%. Fifty percent inhibition occurred at about 20 umol/L pyruvate. The inhibitory effect of pyruvate required entry of pyruvate into mitochondria since it did not occur in the presence of a-cyano4hydroxycinnamic acid, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial pyruvate transporter. “
“…Earlier work by Olson and by Evans et al had demonstrated significant inhibition (40% to 50%) of palmitate oxidation in the retrogradely perfused heart by lactate and by pyruvate. In addition, experiments by Harris et al5 and by Hirche and Langor have shown that lactate could compete effectively with fatty acids for oxidation by the heart in vivo. These observations have led us to investigate the possible inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by pyruvate in isolated rat heart mitochondria. We have demonstrated a significant inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by pyruvate.”
Fatty acid accumulation during ischemia and reperfusion: effects of pyruvate and POCA, a carnitine palmitoyltransferase I inhibitor. – PubMed – NCBI (P)
“…During reperfusion, however, the tissue FA level dramatically increases, indicating that the inhibitory effects of pyruvate and POCA on FA utilization are additive. Pyruvate is known to activate pyruvate dehydrogenase and, hence, to stimulate its own conversion to acetyl-CoA (Kobayashi and Neely, 1983). As a consequence, the availability of mitochondrial free CoA will be diminished and beta-oxidation becomes inhibited (Brosnan and Reid, 1985). In this manner pyruvate probably inhibits the removal of FAs released from endogenous lipid pools during reperfusion.”
“…In summary, the present findings show that POCA and pyruvate markedly increase the FA content of reperfused hearts, most likely through inhibition of the oxidation of FAs released from endogenous lipid pools.”
Studies on inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase by palmitoylcarnitine oxidation in isolated rat heart mitochondria. – PubMed – NCBI (P)
Single pyruvate intake induces blood alkalization and modification of resting metabolism in humans. – PubMed – NCBI (P)
“…CONCLUSION: Pyruvate intake induced mild alkalization in a sex-dependent fashion. Moreover, it accelerated carbohydrate metabolism and delayed the rate of glycerol appearance in the blood, but had no effect on the resting energy expenditure. Furthermore, sodium salt seems to have had a greater effect on the blood buffering level than calcium salt.”
Supplementation of pyruvate prevents palmitate-induced impairment of glucose uptake in C2 myotubes. – PubMed – NCBI (P)
Pyruvate reverses fatty-acid-induced depression of ventricular function and calcium overload after hypothermia in guinea pig hearts. – PubMed – NCBI (P)
The action of pyruvate on ethanol oxidation by intact isolated liver cells. – PubMed – NCBI (P)
Stimulation by acetoacetate of DPNH oxidation by liver mitochondria. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Effect of acetoacetate on the oxidation of reduced diphosphopyridine nucleotide by intact rat liver mitochondria. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
“…The oxidation of DPNH (NADH) by intact rat liver mitochondria, isolated in 0.25 M sucrose or 2.5% polyvinylpyrrolidone-0.25 M sucrose, was found to be stimulated 4 to 6 times by catalytic quantities (0.3 to 1.0 uM) of acetoacetate or D-b-hydroxybutyrate. Coupled phosphorylation was also stimulated, with P:O ratios in the range of 1.5 to 2.2. The increased respiration was completely inhibited by Amytal and antimycin A, and phosphate uptake abolished by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Catalytic quantities of succinate, a-ketoglutarate, malate, citrate, glutamate, and pyruvate stimulated the endogenous respiration, but had no effect on DPNH oxidation.”
Acetoacetate induced dehydroascorbic acid accumulation in blood and tissues and its prevention by glucose-cyclo-acetoacetate. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
“…The effect of acetoacetate injections in doses of 500 mg/kg on ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid contents of blood and tissues, and their excretion in urine, was studied. 2. Animals injected with aceto-acetate excrete more dehydroascorbic acid and less ascorbic acid. Their tissues (liver, kidney, spleen and adrenal) also accumulate more dehydroascorbic acid, and the amount of ascorbic acid in them is diminished. 3. Glucose-cyclo-acetoacetate or its hydrolysed product has been found to prevent this increased accumulation of dehydroascorbic acid in blood and tissues. 4. Acetoacetate has been shown to cause oxidation of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid in vitro in presence of a few drops of CuSO4 solution at a faster rate than that in the control. 5. The mechanism for prevention of acetoacetate induced accumulation of dehydroascorbic acid by hydrolysed glucose-cyclo-acetoacetate has been suggested.”
Progressive depletion in the reduced glutathione content of the blood following acetoacetate injections. – PubMed – NCBI
“…The experimental data presented indicate that acetoacetate causes a fall in the blood GSH content, although it is not as sharp and rapid as is reported in the case of alloxan (Leech & Bailey, 1945). It is only natural that this should be so since acetoacetate is an intermediary fat metabolite which normally occurs in very minute proportions in the system. Repeated daily injection brings the blood GSH value to zero in 3-5 days, less time being required with higher dose.”
Evidence that glutathione depletion is a mechanism responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of ethyl pyruvate in cultured lipopolysaccharide-s… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
“…Although NAC increased GSH levels, EP had the opposite effect. The anti-inflammatory effects of EP were partially reversed when RAW 264.7 cells were treated with a cell-permeable GSH analog, glutathione ethyl ester. These data support the view that the anti-inflammatory effects of EP are mediated, at least in part, by the ability of EP to deplete cellular GSH stores. Moreover, the findings presented here suggest that an unusual combination of biochemical effects (inhibition of lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion) might account for the anti-inflammatory effects of EP.”
Effect of acetoacetate upon utilization of carbohydrate. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Hypochlorous acid inhibition by acetoacetate: implications on neutrophil functions. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Osmotonicity of acetoacetate: possible implications for cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Acetoacetate and malate effects on succinate and energy production by O2-deprived liver mitochondria supplied with 2-oxoglutarate. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
[The effect of acetoacetate on 3-hydroxybutyrate oxidation by rat liver mitochondria]. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
The effect of acetoacetate on plasma insulin concentration. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Effect of ethyl pyruvate on skeletal muscle metabolism in rats fed on a high fat diet. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate preserves IGF-I sensitivity toward mTOR substrates and protein synthesis in C2C12 myotubes. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha via stimulation of the TCA cycle. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
The effect of ethyl pyruvate on dapsone-induced methemoglobinemia in rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)


3. Inflammation/Endotoxin/Sepsis/Trauma
Ethyl pyruvate: a novel treatment for sepsis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate: a novel anti-inflammatory agent. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate: a novel treatment for sepsis and shock. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates inflammatory arthritis in mice. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Anti-encephalitogenic effects of ethyl pyruvate are reflected in the central nervous system and the gut. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate reverses development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia during sepsis-induced immunosuppression. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate inhibits the acetylation and release of HMGB1 via effects on SIRT1/STAT signaling in LPS-activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal mac… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Effects of insulin combined with ethyl pyruvate on inflammatory response and oxidative stress in multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome rats with seve… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Effects of N-acetylcysteine and ethyl pyruvate on ischemia-reperfusion injury in experimental electrical burn model. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate protects against sepsis by regulating energy metabolism. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
“…RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that the administration of EP significantly improved the survival rate and reduced intestinal histological alterations. EP inhibited the plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased the IL-10 level. EP significantly inhibited the elevation of the malondialdehyde, lactate, and lactate/pyruvate levels and enhanced the total antioxidative capacity levels in the liver tissues. The downregulation of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP), total adenylate, and energy charge levels in the liver tissues was reversed in the septic mice treated with EP. CONCLUSION:
The results suggest that EP administration effectively modulates the energy metabolism, which may be an important component in treatment of sepsis.”
Ethyl pyruvate reduces hepatic mitochondrial swelling and dysfunction in a rat model of sepsis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Effects of ethyl pyruvate on leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation during early sepsis treatment. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate attenuates murine allergic rhinitis partly by decreasing high mobility group box 1 release. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
A comparative analysis of multiple sclerosis-relevant anti-inflammatory properties of ethyl pyruvate and dimethyl fumarate. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
“…Production of two other proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and TNF, and NO was suppressed by EP in macrophages and microglia. Reactive oxygen species production in macrophages, microglia activation, and the development of Ag-presenting phenotype in microglia and macrophages were constrained by EP. The release of IL-6 was reduced in astrocytes. Finally, EP inhibited the activation of transcription factor NF-κB in microglia and astrocytes. Most of these effects were also found for DMF, implying that EP and DMF share common targets and mechanisms of action. Importantly, EP had in vivo impact on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS. Treatment with EP resulted in delay and shortening of the first relapse, and lower clinical scores, whereas the second attack was annihilated. Further studies on the possibility to use EP as an MS therapeutic are warranted.”
“…Our results speak in favor of this possibility. Maybe the most favorable facts are that EP reduced IFN-γ and IL-17 generation in human PBMCs, alleviated EAE in rats, and even more it practically prevented the second relapse.”
Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates the anti-inflammatory effect of ethyl pyruvate in endothelial cells. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate inhibits HMGB1 phosphorylation and release by chelating calcium. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate decreases airway neutrophil infiltration partly through a high mobility group box 1-dependent mechanism in a chemical-induced murine… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate diminishes the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide infusion in horses. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates endotoxin-induced corneal inflammation. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate attenuates formalin-induced inflammatory nociception by inhibiting neuronal ERK phosphorylation. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate induces heme oxygenase-1 through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by depletion of glutathione in RAW 264.7 cells and … – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
[Ethyl pyruvate inhibited HMGB1 expression induced by LPS in macrophages]. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Preventive effects of ethyl pyruvate on endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Preliminary safety and biological efficacy studies of ethyl pyruvate in normal mature horses. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate decreases proinflammatory gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated equine monocytes. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
In vivo anticoagulant effect of ethyl pyruvate in endotoxemic rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate therapy attenuates experimental severe arthritis caused by type II collagen (CII) in the mouse (CIA). – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Interaction of ethyl pyruvate in vitro with NF-κB subunits, RelA and p50. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate diminishes the endotoxin-induced inflammatory response of bovine mammary endothelial cells. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate downregulates tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 and upregulates IL-10 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated canine perip… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Inhibition by ethyl pyruvate of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB in cultured lung epithelial cells. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate prevents inflammatory responses and organ damage during resuscitation in porcine hemorrhage. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
[Effects of ethyl pyruvate on injuries of sepsis in mice]. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Can we predict the effects of NF-kappaB inhibition in sepsis? Studies with parthenolide and ethyl pyruvate. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate decreases HMGB1 release and ameliorates murine colitis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Effect of ethyl pyruvate on physical and immunological barriers of the small intestine in a rat model of sepsis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate improves survival in awake hemorrhage. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate reduces the development of zymosan-induced generalized inflammation in mice. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate and ethyl lactate down-regulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulate expression of immune receptors. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate modulates acute inflammatory reactions in human endothelial cells in relation to the NF-kappaB pathway. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Protective effects of ethyl pyruvate treatment on paraquat-intoxicated rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
[Protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on barrier function of intestinal mucosa in dogs with septic shock]. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
[Effect of ethyl pyruvate on indices of tissue oxygenation and perfusion in dogs with septic shock]. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate, a potentially effective mitigator of damage after total-body irradiation. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on msP rat leukocytes damaged by alcohol intake. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Beneficial effects of ethyl pyruvate in septic shock from peritonitis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate exerts combined anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant effects on human monocytic cells. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
[Effect of treatment with ethyl pyruvate on multiple organ dysfunction and mortality following delayed resuscitation after burn injury in rat]. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate improves systemic and hepatosplanchnic hemodynamics and prevents lipid peroxidation in a porcine model of resuscitated hyperdynamic … – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
[Effects of ethyl pyruvate on splenocyte proliferation and apoptosis in burn rats with delayed resuscitation]. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
[Effects of ethyl pyruvate on cell-mediated immune function in rats with delayed resuscitation after burn injury]. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent signaling by directly targeting p65. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ringer’s ethyl pyruvate solution: a novel resuscitation fluid for the treatment of hemorrhagic shock and sepsis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate: a novel anti-inflammatory agent. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction in endotoxemic mice and immunostimulated caco-2 enterocytic monolayers. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Resuscitation with Ringer’s ethyl pyruvate solution prolongs survival and modulates plasma cytokine and nitrite/nitrate concentrations in a rat mod… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate prevents lethality in mice with established lethal sepsis and systemic inflammation. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock with Ringer’s ethyl pyruvate solution improves survival and ameliorates intestinal mucosal hyperpermeability i… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate modulates inflammatory gene expression in mice subjected to hemorrhagic shock. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Reactive oxygen species as mediators of organ dysfunction caused by sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, or hemorrhagic shock: potential be… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ringer’s ethyl pyruvate solution: a novel resuscitation fluid. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)


4. CVD
Acetoacetate augments beta-adrenergic inotropism of stunned myocardium by an antioxidant mechanism. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Ethyl pyruvate: A promising feasible therapeutic approach for myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury under both normoglycemia and hyperglycemia. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury exacerbated by hyperglycemia via retained inhibitory effect on HMGB1. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate inhibits oxidation of LDL in vitro and attenuates oxLDL toxicity in EA.hy926 cells. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate protects PC12 cells from oxygen-glucose deprivation: A potential role in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Anti-apoptotic and myocardial protective effects of ethyl pyruvate after regional ischaemia/reperfusion myocardial damage in an in vivo rat model. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Impact of ethyl pyruvate on Adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy in rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Effects of Ethyl Pyruvate in Preventing the Development of Diet-induced Atherosclerosis by Blocking the HMGB1 Expression in ApoE-Deficient Mice. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Role of high-mobility group box-1 in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and the effect of ethyl pyruvate. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Effects of ethyl pyruvate on cardiac function recovery and apoptosis reduction after global cold ischemia and reperfusion. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate prevents methyglyoxal-induced retinal vascular injury in rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate reduces myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury by inhibiting high mobility group box 1 protein in rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate has anti-inflammatory and delayed myocardial protective effects after regional ischemia/reperfusion injury. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate enhances intra-resuscitation hemodynamics in prolonged ventricular fibrillation arrest. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Effects of ethyl pyruvate on myocardial apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2 and Bax proteins after ischemia-reperfusion in rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate enhances ATP levels, reduces oxidative stress and preserves cardiac function in a rat model of off-pump coronary bypass. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate preserves cardiac function and attenuates oxidative injury after prolonged myocardial ischemia. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)


5. GI/Liver/Kidney/Pancreas/Lungs
Prevention of maleate-induced tubular dysfunction by acetoacetate. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Ethyl pyruvate and analogs as potential treatments for acute pancreatitis: A review of in vitro and in vivo studies. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Prophylactic effect of ethyl pyruvate on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury mediated through oxidative stress. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl Pyruvate Attenuates CaCl2-Induced Tubular Epithelial Cell Injury by Inhibiting Autophagy and Inflammatory Responses. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate can alleviate alcoholic liver disease through inhibiting Nrf2 signaling pathway. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate attenuates acetaminophen-induced liver injury and prevents cellular injury induced by N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl Pyruvate Improves Pulmonary Function in Mice with Bleomycin-induced Lung Injury as Monitored with Hyperpolarized 129Xe MR Imaging. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates hepatic injury following blunt chest trauma and hemorrhagic shock by reducing local inflammation, NF-kappaB activation a… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate is renoprotective against ischemia-reperfusion injury under hyperglycemia. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate reduces acute lung damage following trauma and hemorrhagic shock via inhibition of NF-κB and HMGB1. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Hepatoprotective effects of ethyl pyruvate against CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis via inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB signaling and up-regulation of MMPs/T… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate alleviates radiation-induced lung injury in mice. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
The potential beneficial effects of ethyl pyruvate on diabetic nephropathy: an experimental and ultrastructural study. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Protective effects of ethyl pyruvate on lipopolysaccharide‑induced acute lung injury through inhibition of autophagy in neutrophils. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Treatment response of ethyl pyruvate in a mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease studied by hyperpolarized 129 Xe MRI. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Intratracheal instillation of ethyl pyruvate nanoparticles prevents the development of shunt-flow-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in a rat … – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Preventive Effect of Ethyl Pyruvate on Postoperative Adhesion Formation Following Abdominal Surgery. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates experimental colitis in mice by inhibiting the HMGB1-Th17 and Th1/Tc1 responses. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Protective effects of ethyl pyruvate in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Pre- or post-treatment with ethanol and ethyl pyruvate results in distinct anti-inflammatory responses of human lung epithelial cells triggered by … – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Decreased inflammatory responses of human lung epithelial cells after ethanol exposure are mimicked by ethyl pyruvate. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Preventing intraperitoneal adhesions with ethyl pyruvate and hyaluronic acid/carboxymethylcellulose: a comparative study in an experimental model. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Role of ethyl pyruvate in systemic inflammatory response and lung injury in an experimental model of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate pretreatment attenuates concanavalin a-induced autoimmune hepatitis in mice. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury by inhibiting intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and autophagy. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of hepatocellular carcinoma via regulation of the HMGB1-RAGE and AKT pathways. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl-pyruvate reduces lung injury matrix metalloproteinases and cytokines and improves survival in experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
The effect of ethyl pyruvate supplementation on rat fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate significantly inhibits tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and high mobility group box 1 releasing and attenuates sodium tauroc… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate prevents inflammatory factors release and decreases intestinal permeability in rats with D-galactosamine-induced acute liver failure. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate protects against experimental acute-on-chronic liver failure in rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on liver injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on pancreas injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate reduces ventilation-induced neutrophil infiltration and oxidative stress. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Therapeutic treatment with ethyl pyruvate attenuates the severity of liver injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate improves healing of colonic anastomosis in a rat model of peritonitis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates albuminuria and glomerular injury in the animal model of diabetic nephropathy. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate protects rats from phosgene-induced pulmonary edema by inhibiting cyclooxygenase2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate reduces acute lung injury via regulation of iNOS and HO-1 expression in endotoxemic rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
[Effect of ethyl pyruvate on expression of inflammatory factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase proteins in renal ischemic/reperfusion injury … – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Effects of ethyl pyruvate and other α-keto carboxylic acid derivatives in a rat model of multivisceral ischemia and reperfusion. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate reduces mortality in an endotoxin-induced severe acute lung injury mouse model. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate prevents intestinal inflammatory response and oxidative stress in a rat model of extrahepatic cholestasis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate modulates adhesive and secretory reactions in human lung epithelial cells. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate protects colonic anastomosis from ischemia-reperfusion injury. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates liver injury secondary to severe acute pancreatitis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
The role of high-mobility group box-1 in renal ischemia and reperfusion injury and the effect of ethyl pyruvate. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Delayed ethyl pyruvate therapy attenuates experimental severe acute pancreatitis via reduced serum high mobility group box 1 levels in rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
[Effect of ethyl pyruvate on renal high mobility group box-1 protein expression and acute kidney injury in rats with delayed resuscitation after th… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
The protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on lung injury after burn in rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate improves survival and ameliorates distant organ injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Intrapulmonary delivery of ethyl pyruvate attenuates lipopolysaccharide- and lipoteichoic acid-induced lung inflammation in vivo. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate inhibits hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and attenuates pulmonary artery cytokine expression. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
The effect of ethyl pyruvate on oxidative stress in intestine and bacterial translocation after thermal injury. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
[Effect of ethyl pyruvate on peroxidation injury of intestinal mucosa in rats with severe abdominal infection]. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Bench-to-bedside review: Amelioration of acute renal impairment using ethyl pyruvate. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates ileus induced by bowel manipulation in mice. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates liver ischemia-reperfusion injury by decreasing hepatic necrosis and apoptosis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate reduces liver injury in a murine model of extrahepatic cholestasis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates distant organ injury in a murine model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates acute alcohol-induced liver injury and inflammation in mice. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate provides durable protection against inflammation-induced intestinal epithelial barrier dysfunction. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate decreases sepsis-induced acute renal failure and multiple organ damage in aged mice. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Dose-dependent effects of ethyl pyruvate in mice subjected to mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ringer’s ethyl pyruvate solution ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion-induced intestinal mucosal injury in rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)


6. Brain/CNS/Mood/Muscle/Vision
Neuronal inhibition and seizure suppression by acetoacetate and its analog, 2-phenylbutyrate. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Acetoacetate Accelerates Muscle Regeneration and Ameliorates Muscular Dystrophy in Mice. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Acetoacetate protects neuronal cells from oxidative glutamate toxicity. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Acetoacetate protects hippocampal neurons against glutamate-mediated neuronal damage during glycolysis inhibition. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Acetoacetate is a cholesterogenic precursor for myelinating rat brain and spinal cord. Incorporation of label from [3-14C]acetoacetate, [14C]glucos… – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Ethyl pyruvate prevents from chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via preserving cognitive function and decreasing oxidative stress, caspase 3 activation… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate does not require microglia for mediating neuroprotection after excitotoxic injury. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl Pyruvate Attenuates Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in the Endovascular Perforation Rabbit Model Possibly Via Anti-infla… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate modulates delayed paralysis following thoracic aortic ischemia reperfusion in mice. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
The effect of ethyl pyruvate and N-acetylcysteine on ischemia-reperfusion injury in an experimental model of ischemic stroke. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate alleviates early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Neuroprotective effect of ethyl pyruvate against Zn(2+) toxicity via NAD replenishment and direct Zn(2+) chelation. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
“…However, when cortical neurons were exposed to acute treatment of Zn(2+) (400 μM, 15 min), EP, but not pyruvate, significantly suppressed neuronal death, despite the fact that NAD replenishment by EP was weaker than that by pyruvate. Spectrophotometric studies revealed that EP directly chelates Zn(2+), and this was confirmed in physiological contexts, such as, NMDA-treated primary cortical cultures and OGD-subjected hippocampal slice cultures, in which EP suppressed intracellular Zn(2+) elevation and neuronal cell death. In addition, EP markedly reduced the expressions of PARP-1 and of the NADPH oxidase subunit in Zn(2+)-treated primary cortical neurons, well known Zn(2+)-induced downstream processes. Together, these results show EP suppresses Zn(2+) induced neurotoxicity via dual functions, chelating Zn(2+) and promoting NAD replenishment.”
Short term exposure to ethyl pyruvate has long term anti-inflammatory effects on microglial cells. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Combination treatment with ethyl pyruvate and IGF-I exerts neuroprotective effects against brain injury in a rat model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate protects against blood-brain barrier damage and improves long-term neurological outcomes in a rat model of traumatic brain injury. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates 3-nitropropionic acid-induced striatal toxicity through anti-neuronal cell death and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate inhibits retinal pathogenic neovascularization by downregulating HMGB1 expression. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate inhibits HMGB1 phosphorylation and secretion in activated microglia and in the postischemic brain. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Neuroprotective effects of α-ketoglutarate and ethyl pyruvate against motor dysfunction and oxidative changes caused by repeated 1-methyl-4-phenyl-… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate treatment mitigates oxidative stress damage in cultured trabecular meshwork cells. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate ameliorates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury through anti-cell death and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Effect of ethyl pyruvate on Paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in rats. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Improvement of hypoxia-ischemia-induced white matter injury in immature rat brain by ethyl pyruvate. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced white matter injury in the developing rat brain. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Effects of Ethyl Pyruvate on Allodynia, TNF-α Expression, and Apoptosis in the Dorsal Root Ganglion after Spinal Nerve Ligation Injury. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate promotes spinal cord repair by ameliorating the glial microenvironment. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Beneficial effects of ethyl pyruvate through inhibiting high-mobility group box 1 expression and TLR4/NF-κB pathway after traumatic brain injury in… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate rescues nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons by regulating glial activation in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Inhibitory mechanism of MMP-9 gene expression by ethyl pyruvate in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Postischemic treatment with ethyl pyruvate prevents adenosine triphosphate depletion, ameliorates inflammation, and decreases thrombosis in a murin… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Beneficial effects of sodium or ethyl pyruvate after traumatic brain injury in the rat. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate has a neuroprotective effect through activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in Parkinson’s disease model. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Responses of cultured human keratocytes and myofibroblasts to ethyl pyruvate: a microarray analysis of gene expression. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate protects against hypoxic-ischemic brain injury via anti-cell death and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate inhibits peroxynitrite-induced DNA damage and hydroxyl radical generation: implications for neuroprotection. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Combination treatment with ethyl pyruvate and aspirin enhances neuroprotection in the postischemic brain. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate attenuates spinal cord ischemic injury with a wide therapeutic window through inhibiting high-mobility group box 1 release in rabbits. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Antioxidant effect of ethyl pyruvate in respiring neonatal cerebrocortical slices after H(2)O(2) stress. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Neuroprotective effects of ethyl pyruvate on brain energy metabolism after ischemia-reperfusion injury: a 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance study. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Beneficial effects of ethyl pyruvate in a mouse model of spinal cord injury. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate has an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting ROS-dependent STAT signaling in activated microglia. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Exogenous ethyl pyruvate versus pyruvate during metabolic recovery after oxidative stress in neonatal rat cerebrocortical slices. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate attenuates kainic acid-induced neuronal cell death in the mouse hippocampus. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Oxidative damage to lens in culture: reversibility by pyruvate and ethyl pyruvate. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Anti-inflammatory mechanism is involved in ethyl pyruvate-mediated efficacious neuroprotection in the postischemic brain. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Inhibition of the cerebral ischemic injury by ethyl pyruvate with a wide therapeutic window. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate protects PC12 cells from dopamine-induced apoptosis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Attenuation of sugar cataract by ethyl pyruvate. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)


7. Sexuality/Reproduction
Attenuation of Methotrexate-Induced Embryotoxicity and Oxidative Stress by Ethyl Pyruvate. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on mice sperm parameters in phenylhydrazine induced hemolytic anemia. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl Pyruvate Ameliorates The Damage Induced by Cyclophosphamide on Adult Mice Testes. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Protective effects of ethyl pyruvate on sperm quality in cyclophosphamide treated mice. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat ovary: biochemical and histopathological evaluation. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Protective effect of ethyl pyruvate on epididymal sperm characteristics, oxidative stress and testosterone level in methotrexate treated mice. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
A comparison of the effects of N-acetylcysteine and ethyl pyruvate on experimental testicular ischemia-reperfusion injury. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate reduces germ cell-specific apoptosis and oxidative stress in rat model of testicular torsion/detorsion. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)


8. Cancer
Pyruvic acid/ethyl pyruvate inhibits melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells through PI3K/AKT, GSK3β, and ROS-ERK signaling pathways. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell properties mediate the anti-cancer effects of ethyl pyruvate via regulation of th… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
HMGB1 targeting by ethyl pyruvate suppresses malignant phenotype of human mesothelioma. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl Pyruvate Combats Human Leukemia Cells but Spares Normal Blood Cells. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Immunomodulating effect of ethyl pyruvate on nonsyngenic transplanted tumor in mice. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Exploring glyoxalase 1 expression in prostate cancer tissues: targeting the enzyme by ethyl pyruvate defangs some malignancy-associated properties. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate administration suppresses growth and invasion of gallbladder cancer cells via downregulation of HMGB1-RAGE axis. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Accelerated rejection of the second transplants of immunogenic tumor in mice under inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity by ethyl pyru… – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate, an anti-inflammatory agent, inhibits tumor angiogenesis through inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Immunotherapeutic suppression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tumor growth with ethyl pyruvate. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
“…Our findings that IDO is effectively blocked by EP treatment deepens emerging links between IDO and inflammatory processes. Further, these findings rationalize oncological applications for this agent, by providing a compelling basis to reposition EP as a low cost immunochemotherapy for clinical evaluation in cancer patients.”
Ethyl pyruvate administration inhibits hepatic tumor growth. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl pyruvate induces necrosis-to-apoptosis switch and inhibits high mobility group box protein 1 release in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)


9. Infection/Pathogen
Acetoacetate and ethyl acetoacetate as novel inhibitors of bacterial biofilm. – PubMed – NCBI (EA)
Ethyl pyruvate (EP) suppressed postharvest blue mold of sweet cherry fruit by inhibiting the growth of Penicillium oxalicum. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl Pyruvate: An Anti-Microbial Agent that Selectively Targets Pathobionts and Biofilms. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
“…The microbiota has a strong influence on health and disease in humans. A causative shift favoring pathobionts is strongly linked to diseases. Therefore, anti-microbial agents selectively targeting potential pathogens as well as their biofilms are urgently demanded. Here we demonstrate the impact of ethyl pyruvate, so far known as ROS scavenger and anti-inflammatory agent, on planktonic microbes and biofilms. Ethyl pyruvate combats preferably the growth of pathobionts belonging to bacteria and fungi independent of the genera and prevailing drug resistance. Surprisingly, this anti-microbial agent preserves symbionts like Lactobacillus species. Moreover, ethyl pyruvate prevents the formation of biofilms and promotes matured biofilms dissolution. This potentially new anti-microbial and anti-biofilm agent could have a tremendous positive impact on human, veterinary medicine and technical industry as well.”
Ethyl pyruvate attenuated coxsackievirus B3-induced acute viral myocarditis by suppression of HMGB1/RAGE/NF-ΚB pathway. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Ethyl Pyruvate Emerges as a Safe and Fast Acting Agent against Trypanosoma brucei by Targeting Pyruvate Kinase Activity. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)
Decontamination of green onions and baby spinach by vaporized ethyl pyruvate. – PubMed – NCBI (EP)

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